The data gained from the chariot wheels placed the Exodus at the time of the 18th Dynasty (1550-1298 BC), according to the Wyatt Archaeological Research (WAR). The Biblical Archaeological Society (BAR) has different articles on this subject, and they wrote here:
Although there is much debate, most people settle into two camps: They argue for either a 15th-century B.C.E. or 13th-century B.C.E. date for Israel’s Exodus from Egypt.
From “The 18th Dynasty,” which was published by WAR,
this is the most well-documented group of kings in all ancient Egypt. A dynasty…is basically a continuous family line of rulers.
Here’s a summary of the Egyptian dynasties that BAR wrote. The Pharaohs were divided by an
arbitrary and…convenient subdivision of…epochs…by…Manetho. This native historian of Egypt, a priest of Sebennytos…flourished under Ptolemy I (305-285 B.C.), wrote…in…Greek…. The work has perished…we only know it in an epitome…and extracts…Manetho divided…Pharaohs…into 30 royal houses…although…arbitrary…long…employed in modern study of Egyptian history…now impossible to dispense with them…unreliable, yet it continues in use.
The 18th Dynasty ruled in Thebes while other dynastic families ruled in other areas of Egypt.
In the north, or the delta…there lived at this time a people whom the Egyptians thought of as “foreign” …included the…Israelites…other Asiatic peoples…along with them-people who…wanted to rule themselves as the Egyptians did…did not conform to the Egyptian religion…these foreigners soon became a “thorn in the side” of the native Egyptians. At the end of the 17th Dynasty…Egyptians in Thebes…expel the “Hyksos” …Inscriptions document… “Shepherd Kings” in the delta…beginning…the 6th dynasty and terminating with the 17th…although no mention…of the Israelites by name…it was at…the beginning of the 18th dynasty, that they were enslaved. With the trouble-making outsiders gone, the peaceful Israelites were at the mercy of the Theban rulers.
1 Kings 6:1 says 480 years after Israel came out of Egypt was the 4th year of Solomon’s reign. The dating of Solomon’s reign is agreed on by most scholars, so along with other methods of dating, the certainty of when Moses came to Pharaoh’s house is quite reliable. Yet BAS gave a lot more details which made me wonder if what WAR concluded is all that straightforward, after all. Mostly it seemed to me WAR must be right. But because it’s complicated and perhaps overwhelming to follow all this, I’ll just recommend one article BAR wrote, “When a Woman Ruled Egypt.”
WAR’s article is long and complicated, but I definitely found its findings much more intriguing. I’ll summarize what I learned from them here. Amenhotep, Thutmoses, Rameses, and from the 5th dynasty onward, the “Son of the Sun,” these were all 4 interchangeable names for the Pharaohs. The Pharaoh at Moses’ birth was both Thutmoses 1 and Amenhotep 1. Pharaoh’s daughter was both Nefure and Hatshepsut. Moses was called Senmut, Hatshepsut Xnem Amen, and for a time, also Thutmoses 2. The Pharaoh when Moses fled Egypt was Thutmoses 3 and Amenhotep 2 (c. 1479-1425 BC). The Pharaoh of the Exodus was Thutmoses 4 and Amenhotep 3. The first-born son of Pharaoh that died was Tutankhamen, or the famous “King Tut.” But this name is misleading. Tutankhamen was just a crown prince when he died like Moses was before he left Egypt the first time.
Pharaoh’s daughter Nefure/Hatshepsut, who rescued baby Moses, was as well-known in Egyptian history as Cleopatra. When Moses was 12 years old the father of Nefure became Pharaoh over all Egypt. There’s significant evidence in this article to prove Moses was destined to become Pharaoh himself when Nefure’s father died. Moses became Thutmoses 2 when he turned 33 years old. He became very popular with the Egyptians and was a general who pacified Nubia. This increased the wealth of Egypt paid in gold tributes.
“The 18th Dynasty” is a fascinating, long article by WAR which is what I was summarizing just now. Even more fascinating is what happened in Egypt after Israel left, found in another long online article.
Hebrews 11:24-25 says, “By faith Moses, when he had grown up, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh’s daughter, choosing rather to be mistreated with the people of God than to enjoy the pleasures of sin.” The best way to prove you love somebody is to trust them even when it’s hard. Of course, not all humans are worthy of this kind of trust, but God is. Moses trusted God in this way.
Do you trust him?
The pictures above were from free stock photos